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Inflammation of the gums or the gingiva (gingivitis) can occur with differently expressed symptoms as bleeding, swelling and reddening. It is caused by nearly existing uncleaned dental plaque. Sometimes it can develop because of little quantity of dental plaque being left (which is more often when having hormonal disbalance, puberty, pregnancy, menopause) and in very rare cases – even in absence of dental plaque (hereditary diseases, intake of certain medications). In almost all cases however, gingivitis is caused because of the existence of not cleaned dental plaque.

Treatment of gingivitis starts with removing of the cause for its occurrence. This is being worked out by performing professional ultrasonic cleaning of dental calculus and plaque. Afterwards, it is needed that all factors that may lead to increased retention of dental plaque (plaque-retentive factors) are being eliminated. Such are improper dental crowns and fillings (too wide, too short, etc.), dental caries, sharp edges and all other kinds of irregularities.

Gingivitis is reversible – i.e. its treatment leads to full recovery of tooth surrounding tissues and leads to periodontal health. Gingiva stops bleeding, adheres tightly to the teeth and bring back their light pink colour.


After treatment: healthy non-inflamed gingiva brings back its light pink colour and scalpel-like contour and stop bleeding.



Parodontitis is a disease of the tooth-supporting tissues. It is very common worldwide and it is Reason No. 1 for tooth loss. Parodontitis is developed as a complication of non-treated gingivitis. Then inflammation affects not only the soft tissues but also the bone inside which teeth are located.

With the progression of the inflammation process, more and more pathogenic microorganisms develop. Their toxins cause inflammatory response from the body. As a result, more and more of the bone around the tooth is being destroyed and this could potentially lead to its loss when treatment is not started on time.

Treatment of parodontitis also starts with thorough ultrasonic cleaning of calculus and dental plaque and continues with elimination of all plaque-retentive factors (sharp edges, improper crowns or fillings – too wide or too short, etc.). Sometimes it is needed that a curettage and root planing under anesthesia is performed. This is done in order to effectively eliminate the cause of the inflammation – accumulated plaque biofilm.

In some cases, parodontitis is generalized – it affects the bone around most or all of the teeth. In other cases it is strongly localized next to one or several teeth – a bony pocket is developed which happens usually next to a local irritating factor. Treatment of periodontitis should be worked out with the effective compliance of the patient. They should perform good techniques of oral care, cleaning and maintaining of healthy periodontal tissues (cleaning with a toothbrush and toothpaste, dental floss, interdental brushes or water flosser). Without patient’s compliance the effect of the treatment in the dental clinic would be short-termed.

Dental calculus